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The Arabian Nights: Tales of 1, Nights: Volume 1 | Irwin, Robert, Lyons, Malcolm, Lyons, Ursula | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle. The Arabian Nights (Leather-bound Classics) | Burton, Richard, Mondschein, Ph.D. Kenneth C. | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher. zolph, U./Leeuwen, R. van (edd.): The Arabian Nights Enc. Santa Barbara/Denver/Ox. ; Reynolds, D. F.: A Thousand and One Nights. A History of the. zerobin.co - Buy The Arabian Nights book online at best prices in India on zerobin.co Read The Arabian Nights book reviews & author details and more at. Buy ARABIAN NIGHTS: COMPLETE MINI from Amazon's DVD & Blu-ray TV Store. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders.
Buy ARABIAN NIGHTS: COMPLETE MINI from Amazon's DVD & Blu-ray TV Store. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. The Arabian Nights: Tales of Nights, Anonymous. Buch - Buchzentrum: Der starke Partner für Handel und Verlage ○ Umfassendes Sortiment mit. The Arabian Nights Entertainments: Lang, Andrew: Books - zerobin.co The latter part of the tale would hardly induce sweet dreams for those with active imagination. See all free Kindle reading are Pc Spiele Online Kaufen Download consider. There is, of course, a winner in Tales of the Arabian Nights, but the point of the game is less to see who wins and more to enjoy the unfolding and telling of a great story! Penguin Books Penguin Classics Warehouse Deals Open-Box Discounts. Translate review to English. Kategorie Belletristik. Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Source had to ask a friend familiar with southwest Asian studies to clarify if whether these stories were not a commentary on click here cultures of that region. The machine learned model takes into account factors including: the age of a review, helpfulness votes by customers and whether the reviews are from verified purchases. Zusammenfassung Every night for three years https://zerobin.co/casino-spiele-kostenlos-online/beste-spielothek-in-buschmshl-finden.php vengeful King Shahriyar sleeps with a different virgin, executing her next morning. The Sinbad stories are connected but can be read individually. Perhaps go here is why all the Chalifs kings opinion Beste Spielothek in GroРЇe Dunge finden you, really just the grown versions of their entitled spoiled and vicious children, were The Arabian Nights eager to cut Dax Realtime heads off of their innocent victims.
The Arabian Nights - Product detailsIt was an adaptation for children. Ab Minuten. Translate review to English. Bewertungen 0. Altogether there are 26 tales abounding with genies and peris, vizirs and dervishes…and they are certain to delight children today as they have for generations. If one it is just after the text of the book edited by Andrew Young , there is a free Kindle version of it in sections and in a complete version on Amazon. Verified Purchase.
Marital rape, for example, didn't exist in the ninth century because the cultural understanding of marriage encompassed the woman's implicit sexual consent for perpetuity.
Whatever, times change. But as far as this generous inclination takes me, it still leaves me with one very raped Jasmine. She is assaulted in a style that would surely appease even the stringent criteria of Senator Aiken: unambiguously forcibly raped by a total stranger who has forcibly entered her private bathroom while she is as naked as a jay bird.
But wait, it gets better! Because Aladdin, being an upstanding and heroic young man, has the good sense to apologize to her afterwards.
You were so pretty that I just couldn't help myself. I hear ya, buddy! Temptresses, amirite!? I'm being cute about it, but I'm not even really exaggerating.
He really does give a non-apology apology scolding her for her own rape. Here's the whole passage: "Adorable princess," cried Aladdin, accosting her in the most respectful manner, "if I should have the misfortune to have displeased you by the temerity with which I have aspired to possess so amiable a person, and the daughter of my sultan, I must confess, that it was to your beautiful eyes, and to your charms alone, that you must attribute it, and not to myself.
Yeah, that happened! I don't know. The stories in Arabian Nights were as charming and as vivid as any other folklore and fairy tales, but Aladdin's story was like a cymbal crash against my ick-receptor, which made it very hard to talk about the warm and lovely string section humming away elsewhere.
There are many women in Arabian Nights who are clever and brave and loyal, women who outperform men and save the day, but their reward at the end is always You lucky dog!
I'm not saying this is unique to Arabian Nights or even eastern culture, by any means. It's par for the course in Germanic and Greek and Japanese fables.
It just goes to show that rape culture can survive and flourish even in societies where women are seen as capable and important and independently valuable.
Respect for individual women on a personal level doesn't mean there isn't an expectation that women in general still owe their bodies to someone at the end of the day.
At least the good parts, anyway Overall these tales are extremely similar to your classic western tales: plucky paupers rising above their station, marrying princesses, battling giants, dodging unlucky prophesies, building castles in the air.
They're certainly interesting from the perspective of a fairy tale enthusiast such as myself, but the roots are identical to your classic Brothers Grimm, so the resultant foliage is strikingly similar--there aren't many surprises in store for a western audience.
If you want to get into really foreign-feeling stories, you have to go to Australia, the Americas, Japan, Russia, or even Africa.
Women's roles in fairy tales are often So that's it! If you're already interested, they're lovely if occasionally cringe-worthy stories, but rather much like anything you've heard or read before: sneaky viziers, clever street urchins, magic flying horses, evil black people, rape-worthy damsels All the best and worst that Eurasian folklore has to offer.
Shelves: fairy-tale-collection , folklore , children-s-classics , middle-east-arabian-setting , metafiction , audiobook , yearly-reading-challenge , classic , s-club-challenge , kickbutt-heroine.
The fact that British actor Toby Stephens narrates this was definitely a nudge to check out this audiobook from my trusty library. Of course, I appreciate the Arabian Nights, so that's another plus.
Overall, I was a tad disappointed with this audiobook. I enjoyed Ali Baba, Aladdin and the frame story about Scheherazade, but I was bored with the seven tales of Sinbad, and the tale about the greedy man who ended up becoming blind.
They were too monotonous. I felt my mind wandering as I listened and The fact that British actor Toby Stephens narrates this was definitely a nudge to check out this audiobook from my trusty library.
I felt my mind wandering as I listened and did my Wii Fit exercises. I wish they had picked different stories besides these two for the collection, honestly.
And I could have done with more narration about Scheherazade herself as well. At least I had Toby's lovely voice to narrate for me.
Maybe a pet peeve for some, but all the voices sounded British, so it didn't feel as 'atmospheric' to me. This will be a short review because it's kind of a ho-hum read for me.
Nothing spectacular or really awful about it. Although I did like that they included Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade within the production.
I love that music! I plan to read the huge, unexpurgated version of Arabian Nights someday before I die. You can imagine these tales told orally by skillful speakers.
There are stories within stories within stories, an interesting device. It's like "Inception," where you go down the dream layers and then have to return upwards, and then you have to try and remember the upper layers after time away from them.
There are lots of kings and rulers and beautiful princesses and handsome princes. Very few good-looking people turn out to be jerks. There is magic and magical creatures, but not in every story.
It's a great look at human imagination over the generations. These are the main lessons from these tales: Traits such as industry, wisdom, graciousness, and generosity are admired.
Greed, dishonesty, and laziness are scorned. Wealth is admired so long as you are generous with it.
A good story may save your life. A good sob story will make people feel sorry for you and give you money. Everyone eventually gets what they deserve.
Punishments are harsh, so beware! It is such a classic book. We joke about how most of the stories have similar theme.
But life in general has a pattern, doesn't it? Ah, look at me all philosophical! If you are someone who likes to weave tales or to put up excuses for doing a task, then take a bow.
You are a Scheherazade. I give it to Scheherazade. Telling stories that fascinate and distract a Sultan who kills a new wife every night is no child's play.
And so emerges the theme of the Thousand and One Nights or Tales from the Arabian Nights: a story with an embedded story, with another story, and another one, and another, yet another I need to do more research on the provenance of these stor If you are someone who likes to weave tales or to put up excuses for doing a task, then take a bow.
Though they are enthralling to read, I have a hunch that the stories collated here by the Scottish writer Andrew Lang is a sanitized version, as one can detect hints of more gruesome violence and even erotica.
Merchants, sultans, kings, princes and princesses, beautiful slaves, genii, magicians, dervishes, the Tales from the Arabian Nights are a plethora of characters, real and imagined.
But where is the story of Ali Baba? That the Tales from the Arabian Nights are products of the medieval Islamic Arab, Persian, and Indian civilizations is an irony, as the thugs and genocidal bandits of the so-called Islamic State who are killing, pillaging, and raping religious minorities and even their fellow Muslims are a far cry from the medieval Islamic civilizations that they claim to want to reestablish.
Shame on them. God will do justice to those mindless barbarians. View 2 comments. Shelves: ebooks.
When I read the book "Children of the Lamp, The Curse of Akhenaten" , I was curious with the story of Arabian Nights as it was mentioned in the book and encouraged to read.
I now understood why. Part of the story of the Children of the Lamp was taken from the Arabian Nights tale. I soon immersed myself in the curious magical world of Arabian Nights and indeed, it was cleverly done.
I liked the premise these stories were weaved as a collection of short tales. And I wonder why it got a poor review. Moreover, it reminded me the story of Joseph the Dreamer in the bible, The story of the Ass, and Jonas' story too.
They call it blessing-in-disguise. Some call it fate or destiny. This book truly is a delight to read! Once you started it, you can't stop as the short stories were somehow entwined to each other.
It left a great impact, instilling honesty and integrity in me. A must read. I reckon, if I have children this will be their bedtime stories that I will gladly read to them.
The edition I ended up with has been unapologetically bowdlerized, I'm afraid. At some point, I'll need to hunt down an edition that did not have things removed to be considered appropriate for children and Westerners.
That said, what was left was mostly delightful The extreme nestedness of some of the stories is entertaining and then a little irritating.
More of a problem is the fact that towards the end, they start getting rather repetitive. Most unforgivably, this edition doesn The edition I ended up with has been unapologetically bowdlerized, I'm afraid.
Most unforgivably, this edition doesn't actually contain the end to Scheherazade's story. May 18, Azee rated it liked it.
This is a collection of Arabic folklore, which contains various short stories. Each story is related through another story and is woven together into one whole story.
Overall all the stories are really interesting with magical elements as well as suspenseful events occurring in them.
However, some stories were left without an ending, which was the case even for the main story. Apart from the confusion caused by some stories being cut off and another starting, it was an enjoyable book.
I cannot seem to see the end. Everything is linked and turns out to make zero sense. A big mess it is I know they are tales but, man, every character has a story to tell.
Every damn one. Even the bird shitting on their heads. Even when their story is boring as hell.
It's a wonder Sheherazade's head didn't find itself on a spike. All I can say is I am one die hard Hatim Tai fan so loved this book. Reminded me of alladin and alif laila.
A bit nostalgic, nevertheless the stories are also enlightning and interesting. The language is easy and good.
Over all Loved it. A tale within a tale within a tale within a tale. Eat your heart out, Inception!
Lovedddd it up until the end of The Prince and the Princess! What a disturbing ending. Otherwise enjoyable!
Would have liked more about how it ended for Scheherazade! Unfortunately, after something years of collecting, multiple moves across the country in which my books stayed at the Kamloops home-base , and spending more energy reading library books my unread collection has grown to well over items of varying genre, format, and length and become unsurprisingly daunting.
This could have backfired, but he picked my collection of tales from the Arabian Nights, which actually ended up being a perfect book to read before bed over the Dead Days between Christmas and New Years.
The tone was very whimsical but still no nonsense and realistic and the stories that Scheherazade tells to the Sultan to save her life and that of all the women in her country definitely have a magical intrigue that drew me into them.
I definitely have to find a more comprehensive collection of the Arabian Nights stories though, since clearly pages does not capture them all and Andrew Lang is not what we would call a top fairytale scholar in reproducing the tales in a more traditional and complete manner.
This version from Wordsworth Classics consists of edited selected tales for children at pages.
The really major difference is in presentation - the children get the stunning illustrations by H. So I bought it.
The last time I read two books simultaneously was Pushkin's wonderful "Eugene Onegin". This was because I couldn't decide be This version from Wordsworth Classics consists of edited selected tales for children at pages.
This was because I couldn't decide between two differing translations. No regrets whatsoever. Which is only appropriate considering Scheherazade had to endure it with some anxiety whereas my endurance is savoured by pleasure.
Even so I hope I may be granted some share in her spirit perhaps. The music of Rimsky-Korsakoff's "Scheherazade" is certainly an immediate form of transportation!!!
This will be Fun. The stories are framed in the story of Scheherazade, who told the Sultan tales each night for nights to prevent him killing her.
The tales are sometimes tales within tales within tales within a tale which can get a little confusing if you aren't careful. I understand some of the stories here were not in the original manuscript like Ali Baba, Sinbad and Aladdin but all stories are fun to read, fantastical in some sense, and they even contain lessons for life.
This is a wishy washy version of One Thousand and One Nights, the tales Scheherazade told to King Shahryar every night to stop him beheading her.
The introduction to the Arabian Nights claims that they have selected the best stories, taken out the boring bits and verse.
Having read part way through the first volume of nights, I see that they have also taken out all the salacious details, while leaving in the violence and with the exception of a paragraph at the begin no reference to Scheher This is a wishy washy version of One Thousand and One Nights, the tales Scheherazade told to King Shahryar every night to stop him beheading her.
Having read part way through the first volume of nights, I see that they have also taken out all the salacious details, while leaving in the violence and with the exception of a paragraph at the begin no reference to Scheherazade.
What is left is a bunch of well worn fairy stories- a top ten out of thousands. I am going back to the original - it might be a bit of a slog but it is funnier, sexier and more entertaining Another one from the 'I read it because it was free' category.
Probably not worth your time as the solution to most of the character's problems is literally magic! The nights pretense and the elaborately nested stories holds for about a third of the book and is then simply abandoned.
It was nice to fill some of the gaps in my knowledge of eastern tales and gain some insight into the historical culture short version; wealth is everything but the occasional gem barely makes this worth readi Another one from the 'I read it because it was free' category.
It was nice to fill some of the gaps in my knowledge of eastern tales and gain some insight into the historical culture short version; wealth is everything but the occasional gem barely makes this worth reading.
Aug 23, Audrey rated it it was amazing. Short review, because these stories were wonderful.
Centuries ago? All I know that it is containing OLD stories, and back then, no body knew a thing about racism, which is really, really wrong, but it was used in all parts of the world.
So, please, keep that in mind. Now, goodbye. It just annoyed me, you know? Here are like one hundred people saying that, but yeah, here is the truth.
Jun 19, Michelle rated it liked it. An interesting read. Short stories, well fairy tales really from the Middle East and Asia. I enjoyed them and they flow into one another.
Some are quite short so it's easy to pick up and put down. One of the few classics I've enjoyed. Pleasant read I liked the short stories.
Well translated and the choice of stories were interesting. But it would have been more interesting, if the set of interwined stories were all mentioned rather than just a part of the whole.
May 15, A. These are wonderful! A great first glimpse into the stories that make up the Arabian Nights. I will be excited to read more of them Author did good, but I didn't enjoyed those stories.
I had been meaning to read this for quite some time. The only trouble is there was no "this". It's a cleverly clothed collection of Middle Eastern fairy tales.
Unlike the Brothers Grimm collection I have, this one attempts to weaves dissimilar stories into one tale.
That tale is of a king that has lost faith in women. He believes they will always betray the man they marry. So his beats them to it.
He marries a woman, kills her on her wedding night, and does it again the next day. This continues I had been meaning to read this for quite some time.
This continues until, Scheherazade, volunteers to marry him but has a plan. She will tell him a story every night, but not come to the end of the story when sunrise, the time appointed for execution, arrives.
Her trick works and the King spares her life one more night, so that he can hear the end of the story she told. This continues for night, or so I'm told.
Apparently, there are no shortage of versions out there. None of which I've found has all stories. This version contains but a few of them, enough to give me a feel for the themes.
Genies and other magical beings abound. Though, this edition doesn't contain Aladdin, that story is one of the So, too, is Sinbad the Sailor.
Reading the man's adventures called to mind Gulliver's travels. In the 7 stories he finds himself on may a strange island, having to outsmart many a strange beast.
By the 4th journey, I am left wondering what's wrong with the fool? Every time he travels, he gets ship-wrecked and it take him 7 journeys to call it quits?
I guess Scheherazade needed to go back to what worked. One last note, if you've every seen those Russian dolls that have another smaller doll inside it, which in turn has an even smaller doll inside of it, this collection is like that.
Scheherazade tells a story and has the tailor or the barber or whomever tell a story within that story.
Sometimes Scheherazade's storyteller has a tale containing a storyteller of it's own. You often find yourself reading about a story within a story within a story.
You can easily lose you bearings. The saving grace for this, though, is that the deeper you go in the chain of stories, the shorter that story is, so you don't have to keep your bearings for all that long.
I don't think I'd recommend reading this book like a normal book. The first known reference to the Nights is a 9th-century fragment.
By the 20th century, Western scholars had agreed that the Nights is a composite work consisting of popular stories originally transmitted orally and developed during several centuries, with material added somewhat haphazardly at different periods and places.
Several layers in the work, including one originating in Baghdad and one larger and later, written in Egypt, were distinguished in by August Müller.
Most of the tales best known in the West—primarily those of Aladdin, Ali Baba, and Sindbad—were much later additions to the original corpus.
His translation remained standard until the midth century, parts even being retranslated into Arabic. The Arabic text was first published in full at Calcutta Kolkata , 4 vol.
The source for most later translations, however, was the so-called Vulgate text, an Egyptian recension published at Bulaq , Cairo , in , and several times reprinted.
Meanwhile, French and English continuations, versions, or editions of Galland had added stories from oral and manuscript sources, collected, with others, in the Breslau edition, 5 vol.
Later translations followed the Bulaq text with varying fullness and accuracy. The Thousand and One Nights.
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Visite Leggi Modifica Modifica wikitesto Cronologia. Aggiungi collegamenti. Il primo livello su Commodore C Altri: All extant substantial versions of both recensions share a small common core of tales: .
The texts of the Syrian recension do not contain much beside that core. It is debated which of the Arabic recensions is more "authentic" and closer to the original: the Egyptian ones have been modified more extensively and more recently, and scholars such as Muhsin Mahdi have suspected that this was caused in part by European demand for a "complete version"; but it appears that this type of modification has been common throughout the history of the collection, and independent tales have always been added to it.
No copy of this edition survives, but it was the basis for an edition by Bulaq, published by the Egyptian government.
Each volume contained one hundred tales. Soon after, the Prussian scholar Christian Maximilian Habicht collaborated with the Tunisian Mordecai ibn al-Najjar to create an edition containing nights both in the original Arabic and in German translation, initially in a series of eight volumes published in Breslau in — A further four volumes followed in — In addition to the Galland manuscript, Habicht and al-Najjar used what they believed to be a Tunisian manuscript, which was later revealed as a forgery by al-Najjar.
This claimed to be based on an older Egyptian manuscript which has never been found. This edition, known as the Leiden text, was compiled in Arabic by Muhsin Mahdi In , a further Arabic edition appeared, containing from the Arabian Nights transcribed from a seventeenth-century manuscript in the Egyptian dialect of Arabic.
The first European version — was translated into French by Antoine Galland from an Arabic text of the Syrian recension and other sources.
Galland's version of the Nights was immensely popular throughout Europe, and later versions were issued by Galland's publisher using Galland's name without his consent.
As scholars were looking for the presumed "complete" and "original" form of the Nights, they naturally turned to the more voluminous texts of the Egyptian recension, which soon came to be viewed as the "standard version".
The first translations of this kind, such as that of Edward Lane , , were bowdlerized. Burton's original 10 volumes were followed by a further six seven in the Baghdad Edition and perhaps others entitled The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and a Night , which were printed between and It has, however, been criticized for its "archaic language and extravagant idiom" and "obsessive focus on sexuality" and has even been called an "eccentric ego-trip " and a "highly personal reworking of the text".
Later versions of the Nights include that of the French doctor J. Mardrus , issued from to It was translated into English by Powys Mathers , and issued in Like Payne's and Burton's texts, it is based on the Egyptian recension and retains the erotic material, indeed expanding on it, but it has been criticized for inaccuracy.
In a new English translation was published by Penguin Classics in three volumes. It is translated by Malcolm C. Lyons and Ursula Lyons with introduction and annotations by Robert Irwin.
It contains, in addition to the standard text of Nights, the so-called "orphan stories" of Aladdin and Ali Baba as well as an alternative ending to The seventh journey of Sindbad from Antoine Galland 's original French.
As the translator himself notes in his preface to the three volumes, "2875o attempt has been made to superimpose on the translation changes that would be needed to 'rectify' Moreover, it streamlines somewhat and has cuts.
In this sense it is not, as claimed, a complete translation. Scholars have assembled a timeline concerning the publication history of The Nights :   .
The One Thousand and One Nights and various tales within it make use of many innovative literary techniques , which the storytellers of the tales rely on for increased drama, suspense, or other emotions.
The One Thousand and One Nights employs an early example of the frame story , or framing device : the character Scheherazade narrates a set of tales most often fairy tales to the Sultan Shahriyar over many nights.
Many of Scheherazade's tales are themselves frame stories, such as the Tale of Sinbad the Seaman and Sinbad the Landsman , which is a collection of adventures related by Sinbad the Seaman to Sinbad the Landsman.
Another technique featured in the One Thousand and One Nights is an early example of the " story within a story ", or embedded narrative technique: this can be traced back to earlier Persian and Indian storytelling traditions, most notably the Panchatantra of ancient Sanskrit literature.
The Nights , however, improved on the Panchatantra in several ways, particularly in the way a story is introduced.
In the Panchatantra , stories are introduced as didactic analogies, with the frame story referring to these stories with variants of the phrase "If you're not careful, that which happened to the louse and the flea will happen to you.
The general story is narrated by an unknown narrator, and in this narration the stories are told by Scheherazade.
In most of Scheherazade's narrations there are also stories narrated, and even in some of these, there are some other stories. Within the "Sinbad the Sailor" story itself, the protagonist Sinbad the Sailor narrates the stories of his seven voyages to Sinbad the Porter.
In yet another tale Scheherazade narrates, " The Fisherman and the Jinni ", the "Tale of the Wazir and the Sage Duban " is narrated within it, and within that there are three more tales narrated.
Dramatic visualization is "the representing of an object or character with an abundance of descriptive detail, or the mimetic rendering of gestures and dialogue in such a way as to make a given scene 'visual' or imaginatively present to an audience".
This technique is used in several tales of the One Thousand and One Nights. A common theme in many Arabian Nights tales is fate and destiny.
The Italian filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini observed: . So a chain of anomalies is set up. And the more logical, tightly knit, essential this chain is, the more beautiful the tale.
By 'beautiful' I mean vital, absorbing and exhilarating. The chain of anomalies always tends to lead back to normality.
The end of every tale in The One Thousand and One Nights consists of a 'disappearance' of destiny, which sinks back to the somnolence of daily life The protagonist of the stories is in fact destiny itself.
Though invisible, fate may be considered a leading character in the One Thousand and One Nights.
Early examples of the foreshadowing technique of repetitive designation , now known as " Chekhov's gun ", occur in the One Thousand and One Nights , which contains "repeated references to some character or object which appears insignificant when first mentioned but which reappears later to intrude suddenly in the narrative".
Another early foreshadowing technique is formal patterning , "the organization of the events, actions and gestures which constitute a narrative and give shape to a story; when done well, formal patterning allows the audience the pleasure of discerning and anticipating the structure of the plot as it unfolds".
This technique is also found in One Thousand and One Nights. Another form of foreshadowing is the self-fulfilling prophecy , which dates back to the story of Krishna in ancient Sanskrit literature , and Oedipus or the death of Heracles in the plays of Sophocles.
A variation of this device is the self-fulfilling dream, which can be found in Arabic literature or the dreams of Joseph and his conflicts with his brothers, in the Hebrew Bible.
Several tales in the One Thousand and One Nights use this device to foreshadow what is going to happen, as a special form of literary prolepsis.
A notable example is "The Ruined Man who Became Rich Again through a Dream", in which a man is told in his dream to leave his native city of Baghdad and travel to Cairo , where he will discover the whereabouts of some hidden treasure.
The man travels there and experiences misfortune, ending up in jail, where he tells his dream to a police officer. The officer mocks the idea of foreboding dreams and tells the protagonist that he himself had a dream about a house with a courtyard and fountain in Baghdad where treasure is buried under the fountain.
The man recognizes the place as his own house and, after he is released from jail, he returns home and digs up the treasure.
In other words, the foreboding dream not only predicted the future, but the dream was the cause of its prediction coming true. Another variation of the self-fulfilling prophecy can be seen in "The Tale of Attaf", where Harun al-Rashid consults his library the House of Wisdom , reads a random book, "falls to laughing and weeping and dismisses the faithful vizier Ja'far ibn Yahya from sight.
Ja'afar, "disturbed and upset flees Baghdad and plunges into a series of adventures in Damascus , involving Attaf and the woman whom Attaf eventually marries.
In other words, it was Harun's reading of the book that provoked the adventures described in the book to take place.
This is an early example of reverse causation. In the 12th century, this tale was translated into Latin by Petrus Alphonsi and included in his Disciplina Clericalis ,  alongside the " Sindibad " story cycle.
Leitwortstil is 'the purposeful repetition of words' in a given literary piece that "usually expresses a motif or theme important to the given story".
This device occurs in the One Thousand and One Nights , which binds several tales in a story cycle. The storytellers of the tales relied on this technique "to shape the constituent members of their story cycles into a coherent whole.
Thematic patterning is "the distribution of recurrent thematic concepts and moralistic motifs among the various incidents and frames of a story.
In a skillfully crafted tale, thematic patterning may be arranged so as to emphasize the unifying argument or salient idea which disparate events and disparate frames have in common".
This technique is also used in the One Thousand and One Nights. Several different variants of the " Cinderella " story, which has its origins in the Egyptian story of Rhodopis , appear in the One Thousand and One Nights , including "The Second Shaykh's Story", "The Eldest Lady's Tale" and "Abdallah ibn Fadil and His Brothers", all dealing with the theme of a younger sibling harassed by two jealous elders.
In some of these, the siblings are female, while in others they are male. One of the tales, "Judar and His Brethren", departs from the happy endings of previous variants and reworks the plot to give it a tragic ending instead, with the younger brother being poisoned by his elder brothers.
The Nights contain many examples of sexual humour. Some of this borders on satire , as in the tale called "Ali with the Large Member" which pokes fun at obsession with penis size.
The literary device of the unreliable narrator was used in several fictional medieval Arabic tales of the One Thousand and One Nights. Seven viziers attempt to save his life by narrating seven stories to prove the unreliability of women, and the courtesan responds by narrating a story to prove the unreliability of viziers.
An example of the murder mystery  and suspense thriller genres in the collection, with multiple plot twists  and detective fiction elements  was " The Three Apples ", also known as Hikayat al-sabiyya 'l-maqtula "The Tale of the Murdered Young Woman".
In this tale, Harun al-Rashid comes to possess a chest, which, when opened, contains the body of a young woman.
Harun gives his vizier, Ja'far , three days to find the culprit or be executed. At the end of three days, when Ja'far is about to be executed for his failure, two men come forward, both claiming to be the murderer.
As they tell their story it transpires that, although the younger of them, the woman's husband, was responsible for her death, some of the blame attaches to a slave, who had taken one of the apples mentioned in the title and caused the woman's murder.
Harun then gives Ja'far three more days to find the guilty slave. When he yet again fails to find the culprit, and bids his family goodbye before his execution, he discovers by chance his daughter has the apple, which she obtained from Ja'far's own slave, Rayhan.
Thus the mystery is solved. Another Nights tale with crime fiction elements was "The Hunchback's Tale" story cycle which, unlike "The Three Apples", was more of a suspenseful comedy and courtroom drama rather than a murder mystery or detective fiction.
The story is set in a fictional China and begins with a hunchback, the emperor's favourite comedian , being invited to dinner by a tailor couple.
The hunchback accidentally chokes on his food from laughing too hard and the couple, fearful that the emperor will be furious, take his body to a Jewish doctor 's clinic and leave him there.
This leads to the next tale in the cycle, the "Tale of the Jewish Doctor", where the doctor accidentally trips over the hunchback's body, falls down the stairs with him, and finds him dead, leading him to believe that the fall had killed him.
The doctor then dumps his body down a chimney, and this leads to yet another tale in the cycle, which continues with twelve tales in total, leading to all the people involved in this incident finding themselves in a courtroom , all making different claims over how the hunchback had died.
Haunting is used as a plot device in gothic fiction and horror fiction , as well as modern paranormal fiction. Legends about haunted houses have long appeared in literature.
Horror fiction elements are also found in "The City of Brass" tale, which revolves around a ghost town. The horrific nature of Scheherazade 's situation is magnified in Stephen King 's Misery , in which the protagonist is forced to write a novel to keep his captor from torturing and killing him.
The influence of the Nights on modern horror fiction is certainly discernible in the work of H. As a child, he was fascinated by the adventures recounted in the book, and he attributes some of his creations to his love of the Nights.
Several stories within the One Thousand and One Nights feature early science fiction elements.
One example is "The Adventures of Bulukiya", where the protagonist Bulukiya's quest for the herb of immortality leads him to explore the seas, journey to Paradise and to Hell , and travel across the cosmos to different worlds much larger than his own world, anticipating elements of galactic science fiction;  along the way, he encounters societies of jinn ,  mermaids , talking serpents , talking trees, and other forms of life.
In another Nights tale, "Abdullah the Fisherman and Abdullah the Merman", the protagonist Abdullah the Fisherman gains the ability to breathe underwater and discovers an underwater society that is portrayed as an inverted reflection of society on land, in that the underwater society follows a form of primitive communism where concepts like money and clothing do not exist.
Other Arabian Nights tales also depict Amazon societies dominated by women, lost ancient technologies, advanced ancient civilizations that went astray, and catastrophes which overwhelmed them.
It is often deployed by stories' narrators to provide detailed descriptions, usually of the beauty of characters.
Characters also occasionally quote or speak in verse in certain settings. The uses include but are not limited to:.
In a typical example, expressing feelings of happiness to oneself from Night , Prince Qamar Al-Zaman, standing outside the castle, wants to inform Queen Bodour of his arrival.
When she opens it and sees the ring, joy conquers her, and out of happiness she chants this poem: .
Long, long have I bewailed the sev'rance of our loves, With tears that from my lids streamed down like burning rain And vowed that, if the days deign reunite us two, My lips should never speak of severance again: Joy hath o'erwhelmed me so that, for the very stress Of that which gladdens me to weeping I am fain.
Tears are become to you a habit, O my eyes, So that ye weep as well for gladness as for pain. The influence of the versions of The Nights on world literature is immense.
Writers as diverse as Henry Fielding to Naguib Mahfouz have alluded to the collection by name in their own works. Yeats , H.
Lovecraft , Marcel Proust , A. Byatt and Angela Carter. Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin , Sinbad and Ali Baba.
Part of its popularity may have sprung from improved standards of historical and geographical knowledge. The marvelous beings and events typical of fairy tales seem less incredible if they are set further "long ago" or farther "far away"; this process culminates in the fantasy world having little connection, if any, to actual times and places.
Several elements from Arabian mythology are now common in modern fantasy , such as genies , bahamuts , magic carpets , magic lamps, etc.
When L. Frank Baum proposed writing a modern fairy tale that banished stereotypical elements, he included the genie as well as the dwarf and the fairy as stereotypes to go.
In , the International Astronomical Union IAU began naming features on Saturn 's moon Enceladus after characters and places in Burton 's translation  because "its surface is so strange and mysterious that it was given the Arabian Nights as a name bank, linking fantasy landscape with a literary fantasy".
There is little evidence that the Nights was particularly treasured in the Arab world. It is rarely mentioned in lists of popular literature and few preth-century manuscripts of the collection exist.
According to Robert Irwin, "Even today, with the exception of certain writers and academics, the Nights is regarded with disdain in the Arabic world.
Its stories are regularly denounced as vulgar, improbable, childish and, above all, badly written. Idries Shah finds the Abjad numerical equivalent of the Arabic title, alf layla wa layla , in the Arabic phrase umm el quissa , meaning "mother of records".
He goes on to state that many of the stories "are encoded Sufi teaching stories , descriptions of psychological processes, or enciphered lore of one kind or another.
On a more popular level, film and TV adaptations based on stories like Sinbad and Aladdin enjoyed long lasting popularity in Arabic speaking countries.
Although the first known translation into a European language only appeared in , it is possible that the Nights began exerting its influence on Western culture much earlier.
The modern fame of the Nights derives from the first known European translation by Antoine Galland, which appeared in According to Robert Irwin , Galland "played so large a part in discovering the tales, in popularizing them in Europe and in shaping what would come to be regarded as the canonical collection that, at some risk of hyperbole and paradox, he has been called the real author of the Nights.
This fashion began with the publication of Madame d'Aulnoy 's Histoire d'Hypolite in D'Aulnoy's book has a remarkably similar structure to the Nights , with the tales told by a female narrator.
At the same time, some French writers began to parody the style and concoct far-fetched stories in superficially Oriental settings.
They often contained veiled allusions to contemporary French society. The most famous example is Voltaire 's Zadig , an attack on religious bigotry set against a vague pre-Islamic Middle Eastern background.
The Polish nobleman Jan Potocki 's novel Saragossa Manuscript begun owes a deep debt to the Nights with its Oriental flavour and labyrinthine series of embedded tales.
The work was included on a price-list of books on theology, history, and cartography, which was sent by the Scottish bookseller Andrew Millar when an apprentice to a Presbyterian minister.
This is illustrative of the title's widespread popularity and availability in the s. The Nights continued to be a favourite book of many British authors of the Romantic and Victorian eras.
According to A. Byatt , "In British Romantic poetry the Arabian Nights stood for the wonderful against the mundane, the imaginative against the prosaically and reductively rational.
Wordsworth and Tennyson also wrote about their childhood reading of the tales in their poetry. Nacht , It depicts the eighth and final voyage of Sinbad the Sailor , along with the various mysteries Sinbad and his crew encounter; the anomalies are then described as footnotes to the story.
While the king is uncertain—except in the case of the elephants carrying the world on the back of the turtle—that these mysteries are real, they are actual modern events that occurred in various places during, or before, Poe's lifetime.
The story ends with the king in such disgust at the tale Scheherazade has just woven, that he has her executed the very next day.
Another important literary figure, the Irish poet W. Yeats was also fascinated by the Arabian Nights, when he wrote in his prose book, A Vision an autobiographical poem, titled The Gift of Harun Al-Rashid ,  in relation to his joint experiments with his wife Georgie Hyde-Lees , with Automatic writing.
The automatic writing, is a technique used by many occultists in order to discern messages from the subconscious mind or from other spiritual beings, when the hand moves a pencil or a pen, writing only on a simple sheet of paper and when the person's eyes are shut.
Also, the gifted and talented wife, is playing in Yeats's poem as "a gift" herself, given only allegedly by the caliph to the Christian and Byzantine philosopher Qusta Ibn Luqa , who acts in the poem as a personification of W.
In July he was asked by Louis Lambert, while in a tour in the United States, which six books satisfied him most. The list that he gave placed the Arabian Nights, secondary only to William Shakespeare's works.
The critic Robert Irwin singles out the two versions of The Thief of Baghdad version directed by Raoul Walsh; version produced by Alexander Korda and Pier Paolo Pasolini 's Il fiore delle Mille e una notte as ranking "high among the masterpieces of world cinema.
UPA , an American animation studio, produced an animated feature version of Arabian Nights , featuring the cartoon character Mr.
The animated feature film, One Thousand and One Arabian Nights , produced in Japan and directed by Osamu Tezuka and Eichii Yamamoto, featured psychedelic imagery and sounds, and erotic material intended for adults.